The Singularity Is Near. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend. Biology is a update of. In his most recent book, The Singularity Is Near, author and our biological functioning until we transcend that make us human—with our computer power in. change of our human-created technology is accelerating and its powers are The Singularity will allow us to transcend these limitations of our biological appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Arabic|
|Genre:||Academic & Education|
|ePub File Size:||30.41 MB|
|PDF File Size:||9.74 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
humanity to transcend its biological limitations-transforming our lives . The singularity is near: when humans trascend biology / Ray Kurzweil. Kurzweil's knee can be positioned anywhere depending on the perception of the observer at the time. An exponential (dark gray line) and a logistic (light gray line) fit on world-population data. The graph focuses on the 20th century during which we have accurate and detailed data. DOWNLOAD in #PDF The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology PDF Click button below to download or read this book.
Read in: His inventions range from optical character recognition devices to scanners and print-to-speech reading machines for the blind. Imagine an artificial intelligence so smart that it constantly revolutionizes and improves itself at such a fast rate, that even the laws of physics will have a tough time catching up with it. If you want to save this summary for later, download the free PDF and read it whenever you want. Download PDF. Take a second to think about all the changes your great-grandparents have seen in their lifetime.
However, at the conceptual level, the law has been subject to an amazing misinterpretation for almost a century. Its recent reformulation may become one of the most remarkable chapters in the history of science.
Energy is distributed unevenly in the universe, and it is those differences in energy densities—energy gradients—that drive all events. Entropy has been interpreted incorrectly as being equal to disorder. Without energy gradients, the universe would be in thermodynamic equilibrium, and events would no longer be possible. The original version of the second law by Clausius—that entropy always increases—therefore defines the direction of the movement of the universe.
Martyushev and Seleznev argue that the MEPP may be viewed as the natural generalization of the second law 1.
Ever since, many physicists have proven that PLA is a simple but powerful framework for unifying Newtonian mechanics, relativity and quantum mechanics. Life itself may be interpreted as a very efficient mode of abolishing energy gradients.
It emerged to speed up the rate of dissipation by continually removing constraints, generating diverse dissipators and successively replacing these with novel dissipators that are ever more effective in energy dissipation. We may assume that the evolution of the universe is a continuous acceleration of energy dissipation and, correspondingly, increase of structural complexity and that life is a specific step in this continuous process.
Once the energy gradient sinks below a critical point, an inanimate dissipative structure disintegrates and ceases to exist. In fact, living systems can be named ontotelic systems, as maintaining their onticity seems to be their ultimate purpose and utility.
Constructions do not continuously dissipate energy, but transiently maintain their stability and a distance from thermodynamic equilibrium, because high kinetic barriers prevent their falling apart. So far, we have no thermodynamic theory of constructions. In biological evolution, constructions came into existence by chance, and the memory of this particular chance has been retained and repeated.
In extant living systems, this memory has been deposited in genomes, in specific connections of brain neurons and, in the case of the human species, in the artefacts of cultural evolution. The driving force behind this permanent acceleration of evolution is epistemogenesis: the acquisition and steady accumulation of knowledge.
The view that life is cognition, and that the evolution of life is the evolution of knowledge, has gained further support by the recent reformulation of the second law of thermodynamics.
To ensure the persistence of mutually competing dissipators in an ever more complex world, life performs increasingly efficient epistemic work. This acquisition of new knowledge is not deterministic.
It can eventually be reached only by blindly fumbling in all directions. In the course of evolution, living species move forward in an epistemic maze with countless blind alleys and possibly only a single way out.
The losers end up in a deadlock, and new and more complex living forms move ahead. On Earth, humans are the species that has advanced most in the epistemic maze.
Humans are now living at a time when a single generation can witness the quick rise of energy dissipation and the parallel growth of knowledge. From our vantage point, we can oversee the full panorama of the evolution of the universe. He believes the only countermeasure is to invest in defensive technologies, for example by allowing new genetics and medical treatments, monitoring for dangerous pathogens, and creating limited moratoriums on certain technologies.
As for artificial intelligence Kurzweil feels the best defense is to increase the "values of liberty, tolerance, and respect for knowledge and diversity" in society, because "the nonbiological intelligence will be embedded in our society and will reflect our values". Good in the s. He compares his Singularity to that of a mathematical or astrophysical singularity.
While his ideas of a Singularity is not actually infinite, he says it looks that way from any limited perspective. Eventually people's bodies will contain so much augmentation they'll be able to alter their "physical manifestation at will". Since people have found no evidence of other civilizations, Kurzweil believes humans are likely alone in the universe.
Thus Kurzweil concludes it is humanity's destiny to do the saturating, enlisting all matter and energy in the process.
Kurzweil says evolution moves towards "greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and greater levels of subtle attributes such as love". That means, he continues, that evolution is moving towards a conception of God and that the transition away from biological roots is in fact a spiritual undertaking.
Kurzweil writes that by a supercomputer will have the computational capacity to emulate human intelligence  and "by around " this same capacity will be available "for one thousand dollars". Kurzweil spells out the date very clearly: "I set the date for the Singularity—representing a profound and disruptive transformation in human capability—as ".
As an example, in , man landed on the moon. Extrapolating exponential growth from there one would expect huge lunar bases and manned missions to distant planets.
Instead, exploration stalled or even regressed after that. Paul Davies writes "the key point about exponential growth is that it never lasts"  often due to resource constraints. On the other hand, it has been shown that the global acceleration until recently followed a hyperbolic rather than exponential pattern. The logistic function looks like an exponential at first but then tapers off and flattens completely. For example, world population and the United States's oil production both appeared to be rising exponentially, but both have leveled off because they were logistic.
Kurzweil says "the knee in the curve" is the time when the exponential trend is going to explode, while Modis claims if the process is logistic when you hit the "knee" the quantity you are measuring is only going to increase by a factor of more. The buildup towards the Singularity is compared with Judeo-Christian end-of-time scenarios.
Beam calls it "a Buck Rogers vision of the hypothetical Christian Rapture". Anthony Doerr says that before you "dismiss it as techno-zeal" consider that "every day the line between what is human and what is not quite human blurs a bit more".
He lists technology of the day, in , like computers that land supersonic airplanes or in vitro fertility treatments and asks whether brain implants that access the internet or robots in our blood really are that unbelievable.
Linden writes that "Kurzweil is conflating biological data collection with biological insight". He feels that data collection might be growing exponentially, but insight is increasing only linearly.