A Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in It is used to produce high-voltage, low-current, high frequency. In presenting this book on the Tesla coil to the pubhc the authors hope that they manual on the construction of high-frequency coils, now so useful in scientific. A tesla coil is one of the most fascinating electrical display devices to see in operation. A large unit can produce a continuous spark of a length exceeding the .
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I also thank Kevin Wilson, creator of the TeslaMap program and webmaster of . This document is about the theory of operation of Tesla coils as well as the. The 'Tesla Coil' is a device invented by the brilliant scientist Nikola Tesla (born , died). It is a high voltage, high frequency, power generator, primarily. Tesla coil theory and applications. Harri Suomalainen [email protected] September 26, , Revised November 24,
Many top of the secondary coil each time. Once the top load gets alterations were done to the original design to increase the saturated it too ionizes the air and releases a spark in the air. As efficiency and usage of the device. This paper deals with one such the earth is the ground for the top load, we see a long spark alteration, which is replacing the AC supply with a DC supply being released by the top load. This process takes places and study the output of the device.
The circuit also needs to be are under development. This paper opens up a wide scope for manually tuned in order to get the best output. Tuning is future study in the area of wireless power transmission and high matching of the resonant frequencies of the primary and the voltage electronics. Though the AC tesla coil is not Index Terms—Mini tesla coil, slayer exciter, DC tesla coil, used everywhere, still a lot of research is going on to improve Wireless power transmission.
Different uses such as X-Ray, lightning phenomenon, production of ozone and many more were developed. But recently due to many factors there has I. The DC tesla coil is a Nikola Tesla developed the tesla coil in , it is an air step forward in increasing the usability and functionality of the core transformer which could produce high frequency voltage device.
The original circuit consisted of a high voltage AC supply, a spark gap, a capacitor, a primary coil With the introduction of the DC tesla coil, scientists are linked to a secondary coil. The specialty of the secondary coil looking at making a break through with not only wireless was that one end of the coil was open to air. Ongoing research is facing the The working of the coil is simple, when the high voltage problem of tapping the high voltage output that is being supply is given to the circuit, the capacitor starts to charge.
As emitted by the tesla coil. This paper portrays some of the the capacitor charges to its peak value no more current can results that were achieved via continuous experimentation with flow thus the spark gap which is in parallel with it will start to the developed coil.
A series of experiments were carried on to ionize the air present in between. Due to the immense flow of test the coil and many factors were altered so as to get the current the air in between the spark gap will ionize and even highest possible output. Current will be the technology and help to the development of such alternative transferred through air to the other end of the circuit. Once this sources of power.
This current will flow Figure 1: Circuit diagram to the primary coil and a magnetic field will be produced which will be linked with secondary coil. Now when the electrons start to flow in the secondary coil towards the top they are breaking their equilibrium state.
Thus they tend to fall down backwards, this causes a more positively charged region near the top load. So it pulls the electrons with more force now, due ii. They are semi-conductor devices. When the positive side of the supply is connected to the p side of the diode it is forward biased and thus the forbidden gap reduces and the device becomes highly conductive.
When the polarity is reversed then the forbidden gap increases and thus it acts like a insulator. So this helps to maintain the flow of current in one direction in the circuit.
In II. These help to The two coils differ from the very fundamental level that is maintain a unidirectional current and block the reverse the primary circuit. Apart from the supply the spark is being current from damaging the circuit.
They have low replaced by a solid state device. Thus even though the forward voltage drop and gave high surge current characteristics of the device remains the same but the approach capabilities. The cost, the size have iii. A base, almost none. The collector is like a reservoir A lot of problems faced by the AC tesla coil are being of current and the emitter is the destination. The solved by using a DC tesla coil. The bulky transformer for opening and closing of the reservoir door is the base providing smooth Ac supply is replaced by a small battery.
The terminal. Whenever there will be voltage on the base spark gap which would need around V DC to be triggered terminal the doors will open and the charge will flow is to be replaced by a transistor. Another thing that is from the collector to the emitter, which is equivalent eliminated is the top load. As the device does give long sparks, of a switch in an on state. As soon as the voltage drop the top load is omitted.
The major problems like bulkiness, equals to zero the doors will close and thus the switch high voltage and current, portability are solved using this will go to off state.
A transistor is used to replace the model. Thus the choice of The major problem faced by the AC tesla coil was tuning.
Depending Tuning is the process of matching the primary coil resonance upon its operation as a switch, response time etc. In the output. The conventional tesla coils do not tune themselves. One more major factor components such the capacitance or the length of the coils is that the transistor has a heat sink.
Due to high used. Until the two coils are not tuned the circuit will not current values the components tend to heat up faster function properly as there will be no or minimal linkage than usual, thus an external heat sink may also be between the primary and the secondary coil. The DC tesla coil used but it is not compulsory.
The transistor being used is iv.
COILS activated only when there is voltage at the gate terminal and The coils are basically two inductors which are would stop if there is no voltage. Thus it acts as a switch.
The magnetically linked to each other. Thus insulated gate terminal is being controlled by the coils which will be copper wires are used for both the primary and the explained later in the paper. Thus the circuit auto tunes and secondary windings. The number of turns, the reduces the lengthy calculations and margin of error.
Thus it is very important to pay III. For the secondary coils a wire of AWG between used to build the tesla coil. The basic circuit diagram is shown 2 to 5 can be chosen and the number of turns can be in figure 1.
The primary coil has to i. A key point is that both the windings should be the device. A RPS is beneficial as the input voltage in the opposite direction for the circuit to work. In the can be changed according to need and the application. DC tesla coil they do not matter as much as they do in Its also helps to keep the work zone safe as the output the conventional tesla coil as the procedure of tuning can rise to a very high level. Lithium polymer the coils is not required here.
A RPS was used in the experiments experiment are as follows: conducted. Now here the Earth acts as the ground to the open end of the secondary coil. Even lighting follows RPS Volts the same phenomenon. Not only the earth the spark would be Diodes 1n - directed at any metal object being brought near it as it would be Resistors Ohms assumed as a ground terminal because it would be more Coils Primary AWG positive than the secondary coil.
The length of the spark turns depends upon the input voltage and length of coil etc. Due to this the transistor is turned off and Wires Single strand - there is no flow from the collector to the emitter of the IV. The field of the primary coil collapses and thus the circuit is turned off. This process takes places several times in a The operation of the device is quite simple to understand.
Thus a continuous stream of sparks are observed. The circuit is switched on by switching on the regulated power Sometimes we observe that there is no visible spark at the end supply. The voltage is gradually increased from 0 to 12V. Thus of the secondary coil. This may be case when the circuit is the current starts to flow from the positive end of the battery or either not functioning properly or the coils are not tuned. Now as you see the base-collector junction is reversed Minor adjustments can be done to rectify the mistakes such as bias Both the terminals are connected to the positive end thus changing the resistance values or the length of the coils.
After the current is divided into the methods.
Number one is to visually see the sparks created by primary coil and the base terminal, it has two ways. Due to the the secondary coil by brining any metal object near the open immense resistance offered by the reverse biased diodes the end.
This will cause a small streak of lighting to the metal. The current enters into the base junction and thus switching on the second would be brining any light bulb near the secondary coil. Now that the switch has been opened the current can The field created by the secondary interacts with the gas freely flow from the top to the primary coil and through the present inside the light bulb, which ionizes the gas present collector region to the emitter terminal.
The ground terminal inside them. This causes the electrons to excite and when they here can be the negative terminal of the battery. As the diodes return to their normal state they emit light.
Thus the light bulb are now in the forward direction for the flowing current enters will be laminated just by being brought near to the secondary through the diode and back to the base junction.
Now this is coil. The lamination will depend on the distance and the output how current flows through the primary coil after the transistor of the circuit. Many more things can be operated wirelessly as has been switched on. Now the primary coil develops an discussed later in the paper.
They produce a very loud noise while operating, noxious ozone gas, and high temperatures which often require a cooling system. The energy dissipated in the spark also reduces the Q factor and the output voltage. Static spark gap - This is the most common type, which was described in detail in the previous section. It is used in most entertainment coils. An AC voltage from a high voltage supply transformer charges a capacitor, which discharges through the spark gap. The spark rate is not adjustable but is determined by the line frequency.
Multiple sparks may occur on each half-cycle, so the pulses of output voltage may not be equally-spaced. Static triggered spark gap - Commercial and industrial circuits often apply a DC voltage from a power supply to charge the capacitor, and use high voltage pulses generated by an oscillator applied to a triggering electrode to trigger the spark.
Commercial spark gaps are often enclosed in an insulating gas atmosphere such as sulfur hexafluoride , reducing the length and thus the energy loss in the spark. Rotary spark gap - These use a spark gap consisting of electrodes around the periphery of a wheel rotated at high speed by a motor, which create sparks when they pass by a stationary electrode.
Tesla used this type on his big coils, and they are used today on large entertainment coils. The rapid separation speed of the electrodes quenches the spark quickly, allowing "first notch" quenching, making possible higher voltages. The wheel is usually driven by a synchronous motor , so the sparks are synchronized with the AC line frequency, the spark occurring at the same point on the AC waveform on each cycle, so the primary pulses are repeatable. A simple single resonant solid state Tesla coil circuit in which the ground end of the secondary supplies the feedback current phase to the transistor oscillator.
This block diagram explains the principle of Tesla coil current resonance type driving circuit.
They provide pulsed disruptive excitation without the disadvantages of a spark gap: the loud noise, high temperatures, and poor efficiency. The voltage, frequency, and excitation waveform can be finely controllable. SSTCs are used in most commercial, industrial, and research applications  as well as higher quality entertainment coils. Single resonant solid state Tesla coil SRSSTC - In this circuit the primary does not have a capacitor and so is not a tuned circuit; only the secondary is.
The pulses of current to the primary from the switching transistors excite resonance in the secondary tuned circuit. This functions similarly to the double tuned spark-excited circuit. Singing Tesla coil or musical Tesla coil - This is a Tesla coil which can be played like a musical instrument, with its high voltage discharges reproducing simple musical tones. The drive current pulses applied to the primary are modulated at an audio rate by a solid state "interrupter" circuit, causing the arc discharge from the high voltage terminal to emit sounds.
Only tones and simple chords have been produced so far; the coil cannot function as a loudspeaker , reproducing complex music or voice sounds. Two modulation techniques have been used: AM amplitude modulation of the exciting voltage and PFM pulse-frequency modulation.