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Actually the use of a foreign word to designate the domestic product took root in professional and academic circles, before entering into common parlance, some thirty years ago. As Jerome Bourdon has pointed out , during the s there was a general reformulation of television jargon, mainly under Anglo-American influence, across Europe and well beyond Italy. It enjoyed immense popularity and still today remains firmly established in the vocabulary and the generational memory of older viewers in addition to being often nostalgically evoked by those wishing to distance themselves from contemporary fiction. Whether it was literary adaptation or historical drama, the sceneggiato re- enacted for the Italians — who were a culturally diverse and largely uneducated population at that time — the key historical events and the novelistic tradition in which a once fragmented country, that had become one nation in relatively recent times, was encouraged to recognize the roots and the routes of a common history and culture. Interestingly enough, however, this effective vehicle for the construction and transmission of national commonalities and national identity, as the sceneggiato proved to be, has from the start entertained apparently contradictory relationships with the cultural heritage of foreign nations.
This ruling group was composed of intellectuals and managers who combined a predominant humanist- literary training with a moderate Catholic political orientation that was responsive to liberal and modernizing aspirations, on the lines of the left wing of the Christian Democratic Party that was then governing Italy Monteleone, It is well known how the Catholic forces were much more farsighted and advanced than the political and cultural forces of the Left who remained entrenched for a long time in their positions of unshakeable ideological denial in understanding the importance of television and the strategic role that it could play in the process of modernizing Italian society Gundle, It may be useful to add that in the s the Catholic world played a prominent part in the organizing of popular entertainment, thanks to a widespread network of both parish cinemas and amateur dramatics.
Concerning the humanistic roots of televisual culture Bettetini, , Sergio Pugliese, a distinguished founding father of RAI and a powerful Director of Programmes from to , was for instance an esteemed playwright.
Under his direction the weekly appointment with theatre on Friday evenings became one of the key features of the programme schedule; and the start of transmissions on 3 January received a theatrical imprinting from the live broadcast of a comedy by Carlo Goldoni Grasso, The theatre was the favourite pastime of intellectuals and the bourgeois class.
The arrival of television on the scene helped to bring about a remarkable increase in audiences for theatrical drama, which became an established part of the viewing habits of a broad section of middle-class viewers. In fact radio had already gone a long way towards opening the gates of the highbrow citadel of the stage theatre to the people; television 4 followed in its footsteps.
It was, however, not thespian art but novels that turned out to be the main vehicle, in lasting form, of widespread diffusion of humanistic and literary culture to the Italian public. An intensive if somewhat artisanal production of TV drama was almost exclusively devoted to this latter.
The division into instalments, six on average, and the literary source of the story being told were distinctive characteristics that were necessary but not sufficient to define the Italian sceneggiato: its specific identity was constructed from an inseparable ensemble of elements which, together with the narrative formula and the literary source, comprised an expressive model and a cultural project.
Shot in interiors with electronic technology and initially broadcast live, the sceneggiato elected the stage, not the cinema, as its reference model. At the same time this was aimed to protect television drama from possible association with, and contamination by, the cinema.
Italy did not of course have exclusivity in literary adaptation. But it was only in Italy that literary adaptations reached, and for a long time maintained, a pre-eminent position in the domestic drama scene in terms of magnitude, continued production of successes, a reputation for quality and the strategic capacity to combine two of the three fundamental purposes of the public service: to educate and to entertain.
The great flowering of the novel, especially in the nineteenth century, found its way almost at maximum capacity into hundreds of adaptations which were destined to become hugely popular and to generate a vast amount of TV personality worship.
Up to there were always literary adaptations, not infrequently more than one title, among the ten most watched programmes of each season Grasso, Their repeats have filled up the night-time programming schedules of the terrestrial networks for years, and more recently have become a resource for the satellite channels, while many titles are being reissued and marketed as DVDs.
In the s the situation was obviously worse. The low level of education was in turn an obstacle to the acquisition of a common language: the numerous regional dialects remained predominant in everyday speech, whereas the habitual use of standard Italian was confined to a small minority of the educated class.
Only By contrast, illustrated magazines, photostories and comic strips had reached a huge circulation among ordinary people by the end of the s; their strong visual component offered less literate people the opportunity for visual reading that relied upon the eloquence of the pictures, without needing to struggle to decipher the written text.
These two unequal segments of Italian society had neither reading nor language in common.
The extremely effective role played by television, in advance of universal schooling, in bringing about the linguistic and therefore cultural unification of Italians is well known and acknowledged De Mauro, But the specific contribution of the sceneggiato, inherent in its nature of adaptation of novels, and its mission in this respect, was to promote the development of a common literary culture among Italians.
In a society in which familiarity with reading books and novels was the privilege of the few, the sceneggiato — inspired by the educational purpose of offering the masses access to the resources of humanistic culture — constituted and increased intensively over the years the televisual version of a well-stocked library, a huge repository of a novelistic patrimony brought into the reach of all for the first time.
First I want to address briefly a question that in my view has not been sufficiently clarified in the historiography of early broadcasting in Italy.
In fact sceneggiato achieved such a profound popular impact 8 because, in large measure, it was popular: by reason of its structure, language, visual style and content. The most eloquent proof of a production policy that was only partially bothered about respecting the canons and celebrating the classics is supplied by the case of I promessi sposi The Betrothed.
In fact, wanting first and foremost to popularize literature, the sceneggiato created its own mixed repertoire, in which high literature and popular fiction, the great writers of the West canon and the authors of successful but not outstanding works co-existed side by side.
Who were the authors and novelists in question? It is worth verifying this in order to grasp in what sense sceneggiato can be considered to be a national genre, and what is meant by the claim that it sought to contribute to the unification of Italians within a common national literary culture.
The case of Italian sceneggiato gives the lie to this postulate, which furthermore has been authoritatively called into question - in discursive contexts others than television studies Sassen, ; see also Buonanno, The sceneggiato was certainly national at the level of the economy and production practices. It drew on a pool of native creative talent and actors, introducing them into a national star system, and also worked to achieve linguistic and cultural unification across the nation.
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