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The solution becomes turbid. Turbidimetry is based on an optical detection system that measure the turbidity, the concentration of very small particles suspended in a solution. A light beam incoming light, yellow arrow sent trough a solution is scattered depending on the degree of turbidity. A photodetector mesures the reduction in the intensity of the light beam transmitted light, blue arrows. A complete line of CE marked last generation tests: monoreagents, with stability over 18 months, mostly without sample predilution, short testing time, easy to automate. Kits are available in standard bottles as well as in Hitachi compatible bottles or upon customer need.
Limits of detection LOD of 2. The STN analyses were also performed to determinate thiamine and two analytical curves in the concentration ranges from 5. Keywords: turbidimetry, nephelometry, N-acetylcysteine, thiamine, microcontrolled photometric detector Introduction beam. Optical instruments based on LED as a radiation source have been described in the literature; however, a few were dedicated to the construction of either turbidimeters or nephelometers.
Scheme of the light scattering in different directions. Some arrangements between the source of the electromagnetic radiation and presents a lower cost, lower power consumption and higher the detector are shown.
The radiation scattering patterns by hypothetic work developed a microcotrolled nephelometer applied particles are shown in Figure 1. A LOD of 4. Additionally, microcontrolled but the logarithm, as can be seen in equation 1: equipment can be very useful for providing favorable features of both turbidimetry and nephelometry techniques due to the 1 possibility of the multi-detector arrangements multichannel detection.
In fact, a multichannel microcontrolled device can where I is the transmitted radiation. Because I and I0 increase the linear calibration range because turbidimetric change proportionately, an increase in I0 will not increase analyses are often used to determine analytes in concentrated the obtained signal. On the other hand, for nephelometric media, while nephelometric analyses are used for less analysis, the relationship between I, I0, and concentration concentrated solutions.
Besides, particle size can change the C is linear, given by equation 2: intensity and direction of the radiation scattering and so, a method can be more sensitive than another.
Therefore, a more tasks during a short time is described. This drug is used mainly suspension to be analyzed. This is due to distinct radiation as a mucolytic and antioxidant agent. Other variables such as rate and a disease known as Beriberi, whose frequent symptoms order of mixing, time for stabilization of the suspension and are insomnia, nervousness, irritability, depression, loss of temperature of the solution are other factors that affect the appetite, abdomen and chest pain, and problems associated properties of the particles, and consequently, the analytical with lack of memory and concentration.
Thus, this variables should be carefully controlled Pharmacopoeia26 recommended the spectrofluorimetric in order to obtain a good analytical performance. Those are categorized The British Pharmacopoeia27 recommends a gravimetric according to the type of radiation source used LASER, procedure by the reaction of thiamine with silicotungstic Evaluation of Turbidimetric and Nephelometric Techniques for Analytical Determination J.
Photodiodes Texas methods have also been employed. Tablet samples of N-acetylcysteine 10 of each and infrared LED were and nm, respectively. The sample purchased from local pharmacies were macerated blue LED was chosen because most turbidity analyses found and masses of 2.
The solutions containing the active principle However, the infrared LED IR LEDs was installed in the were subjected to ultrasound for 30 min and then filtered portable microcontrolled turbidimeter and nephelometer through 0. Sigma stock solution and 7. After, stock solutions were subjected to ultrasound the ultrabright LED was coupled to a BC transistor for 30 min and then filtered. These measurements were done using a turbidimetric module. So, 2. The electric currents were limited reference electrode and platinum foil as the counter electrode.
Electronic circuit of the developed PMTN a. These assays were carried out nm or at nm, respectively, are executed by applying on different days.
Additional details of this program were presented Analytical application employing the PMTN in our previous work. In order to optimize the data on the LCD screen. Figure 3. Figure 3 a. This method was adapted from a conductimetric because the PMTN is able to perform the turbidimetric and method developed by the Janegitz et al.
For the determination of the formed suspension has the same features during both thiamine vitamin B1 , silicotungstic acid was used as the measurement procedures.
For STN analyses, a time of the precipitation agent,38 Figure 3 b. However, in both 0. Each analyte was analyzed separately by the turbidimetric and nephelometric In order to certify the influence of particle size on techniques applied sequentially with an analysis time of light scattering, mainly on the limit of detection for STN 0.
In Figure 3, both reactions are shown. In Table 1, analyses, assays of size particles were carried out by DLS the levels of the variables studied in each of the applied measurements. For this purpose, the same optimized methods are shown. Operational parameter of the to a variation of 3. During the method for the N-acetylcysteine determination, 3 min were Stability evaluation of the PMTN necessary to allow the formation and stabilization of the suspension in order to acquire accurate and precise data.
Tests of stability for a series of measurements during On the order hand, this procedure was not necessary to a period of 6 h on three different days were executed, and determine thiamine because of the fast reaction time and the graph of stability is presented as Supplementary good stabilization of the suspension.
This procedure was Information, Figure S1. The equipment was stable, performed for all experiments.
To minimize changes independent of the time and day in which it was used. For this Table 1. Variables of the 24 factorial design applied to determine N-acetylcysteine and thiamine N-acetylcysteine Thiamine N-act. At this stage of development of As can be seen in Figure 4 a , assay 8 is the one the device, preliminary tests are necessary only to check which supplies the high analytical signal with good the stability of the PMTN electronic circuit and not the reproducibility and stability to determine N-acetylcysteine.
However, before each analysis level. The optimized concentration of analyte, reagent, this spurious signal is read by the PMTN and discounted surfactant, and solution pH to determine N-acetylcysteine automatically from the analytical signal of radiation were 1. The equipment. In some cases, experimental results of turbidity increase of the reagent R and analyte A concentration leads or nephelometry were suppressed since they showed similar to increases in the analytical signal for the studied levels.
All of N-acetylcysteine and thiamine in pharmaceutical further experiments were carried out with these optimized formulations parameters to determine N-acetylcysteine and thiamine in pharmaceutical formulations applying the STN analyses.
In order to find the best parameter for N-acetylcysteine and thiamine determination, a 24 factorial design employing Studies of potential interferences and recovery to determine the variables and ranges shown in Table 1 was elaborated for N-acetylcysteine and thiamine in pharmaceutical each analyte under study.
Only Potential interferences in the determination of turbidimetric data arbitrary units, a. In fact, the investigated at concentrations of , 10, and 0. Results of the factorial design applied to determine N-acetylcysteine a and thiamine b in pharmaceutical formulations. Only turbidimetric data are shown nm. For this purpose, the interference and is a stabilizer and together with PEG acts as a powerful recovery studies were evaluated and the turbidimetric surfactant changing the features of the formed suspension.
Thus, greater povidone concentration induces increased Among all contaminants present in the tablet and turbidity of the solution generating a considerable positive packaging of the pharmaceutical formulations which error. However, at lower povidone concentration studied included saccharin, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, 6.
In fact, this absorption respectively, cause the most perceived of interference.
By reducing the concentration of benzoate effect is opposite to that of turbidimetry as observed anions to 5. Therefore, These values suggest that the determination of N-acetylcysteine in the presence of contaminants in the sample matrix had little influence in these substances was carried out in the infrared spectral the analysis.
The turbidimetric data at and nm nm were always employed to avoid the interference effect are discussed. The values of recovery varied in the range of colored sample solutions. A The same procedure was performed to test the comparison between the applied methods potential interference in the method for the determination of thiamine in pharmaceutical formulations.
This time, All figures of merit obtained by application of the STN the nephelometric results carried out at and nm method with PMTN to determine N-acetylcysteine and are discussed in order to evaluate the versatility of the thiamine were summarized in Tables 2 and 3 in order developed instrument.
The contaminants were added to compare the performance of the turbidimetric and at concentrations of , 1 and 0. The analytical curves are concentration 6. The following contaminants were then analyzed: The use of the PMTN to determine N-acetylcysteine povidone, ascorbic acid, starch, lactose, ferrous sulfate, by STN method employing copper ions as a precipitant zinc sulfate, riboflavin and cyanocobalamin. Interferences reagent showed satisfactory analytical sensitivity.
By studies with all combined concomitants were also applying the nephelometric method, it is possible to realized. The 6. Povidone range as compared with the turbidimetric method.
These Vol. Table 3.
Figures of merit of linear regression obtained by application of the precipitation reaction between thiamine and silicotungstic acid employing the PMNT with measurement at nm Parameters Turbidimetric results Nephelometric results Equation of regression T. Thus, a study of particle size was performed analyses, respectively. The results regarding the determination of thiamine by Light scattering and particles size employing STN methods with PMTN showed to be very encouraging due to the low limits of detections acquired According to the results obtained from the STN studies45,46 for both methods, wide linearity and high analytical for the precipitate formed in the of N-acetylcysteine method sensitivity slope of analytical curve are also obtained.
In other words, it is outside the when applying the nephelometric method were higher technical specifications of the equipment applied to DLS than those obtained when employing the turbidimetric measurements. On the other hand, the particle size of the method.
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