I am sure that after reading the analysis on the NDC manifesto to http:// scretch.info President John Mahama officially launched the manifesto of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) in Sunyani on Saturday. . the pledge we made to Ghanaians, as anchored on the four pillars of our Manifesto. The governing National Democratic Congress on Thursday launched its manifesto which promises to continue with its better Ghana.
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The NDC Manifesto is therefore a bold, forward- looking agenda, which enumerates our solemn commitment to Advance the Better Ghana Agenda. The NDC, for 8 years, between and , did its utmost best to reconstruct the nation's foundation and build on such a foundation. The opportunity. As leader of the NDC and Government, our policies, The National Democratic Congress (NDC) remains deeply . on the four pillars of our Manifesto.
Email Green Book - Accounting To The People President John Dramani Mahama made a pact with the sovereign people of Ghana in to deliver on their mandate in a manner that will change lives and transform our dear nation, Ghana. He has been delivering on this sacred mandate with a sense of urgency. Many Ghanaians agree that sterling results have been achieved in his first term in office while strenuous efforts are being made to resolve long-standing national challenges. This book, Accounting to the People, is a compilation of the numerous significant strides made in various sectors of our national life. The book is presented in two parts. The second part provides pictorial proof of work done at the district level. The content of this book is not exhaustive.
Takyiwaa Manuh We knew that Nigeria had done something like that, and so had Botswana and Tanzania.
And so I just said it — that we should have a Ghanaian Women's Manifesto and she said it was a wonderful idea, and that is how it started. These regional inspirations and networks in West-African among women activists helped ground the Manifesto for Ghana and provided a framework for the participatory consultations Manifesto, From that time, I began to feel that one day we could also embark on something like that.
I remember talking to Nkoyo Toyo, and she said that theirs was a very simple process. They held a series of women's political summits that brought different groups together in a series of meetings. The consultations in Ghana took place from June to December They were inclusive, involved support of local communities and Assembly deliberations Mama, After these consultations, Drafting and Steering Committees were set up to draft and make decisions on the process of developing and promoting the Manifesto.
Information generated through the various consultations served as the basis for the production of a pre-draft Manifesto. From February to April three meetings were held to draft the manifesto. In April-May the draft was used to organize broader regional consultations throughout the country for additional comments and suggestions about how the document could be improved and finalised for publication and wider dissemination Mama, Further consultations were organised with different constituencies including the media, senior female executives in the various Ministries Departments and Agencies between June-July, Activists had a positive relationship with the media, briefing them monthly on chapter contents before the official publication Mama, The presentation in the Accra Conference Centre was attended by women and men from across the social and political spectrum, attracting extensive media coverage Apusigah, The main demands reflect a wide-variety of demands made by Ghanaian women, targeting specific areas of concern and prescriptions how to move forward Manifesto, Following a slow start, the number of functional CHPS compounds doubled from to between and [ 13 ].
The programme relies on community resources for construction, service delivery and programme oversight [ 7 ]. As such, it represents a national mobilisation of grass-roots action, resources and leadership in promoting quality health care in marginalised communities. With a primary focus on deprived rural communities, CHPS aims to provide essential primary health care services and health education within demarcated geographic areas referred to as CHPS zones, which are staffed by resident Community Health Officers and supported by community volunteers, community health committees and traditional health care providers including native doctors, Traditional Birth Attendants TBAs and herbalists [ 14 ].
CHPS activities cover educational programmes aimed at prevailing health problems, prevention and care, improving physical wellbeing and personal hygiene, maternal, newborn and child health care including antenatal and postnatal care as well as family planning and immunisation [ 14 ].
Although research evidence shows that skilled birth care is essential in addressing the high rates of child and maternal mortality and morbidity in low and middle-income countries, provision of skilled delivery care is not stated as a core activity in the operational policy of CHPS [ 14 , 15 ]. However, the initiative is one of the major services prioritised to improve maternal and child health [ 16 ].
The strategic goal is that the initiative will promote skilled delivery attendance through community participation, promotional activities and referral services [ 14 , 17 ]. Despite the focus on CHPS as an intervention to accelerate progress to MDG-5 and stimulate the attainment of the post-MDG agenda of equitable health outcomes, strategic intelligence on the impact of the CHPS initiative is lacking while continued problems persist in relation to geographical accessibility to care for rural women [ 8 ].
However, this and other initiatives to reduce geographical barriers to care have focused on interim measures to provide a minimally trained assistant, rather than a professional nurse or midwife.
Examining the impact of these initiatives, especially those that have embedded professional care such as the CHPS scheme is crucial for accelerating progress to MDG-5 and beyond. The aim of this paper is therefore to investigate the growth of CHPS compounds in rural communities and map their influence on facilitating skilled birth care in rural communities. Using modern GIS techniques, it is now possible to link the geographical location of these functional CHPS compounds with contemporaneous data on skilled care at birth to assess the success of the initiative in promoting use of services in rural areas.
By doing this it is possible to directly investigate whether the CHPS compounds serve as a facilitator for skilled birth attendance to occur in local hospitals. Given the urgency to accelerate progress towards under the new MAF operational plan, such analyses are vital. Previous research on progress in MDG-5 has focused on indicators at the country level. However, there are increasing concerns of widening inequalities at the sub-national level [ 24 ]. Research evidence shows that even where national maternal and newborn mortality rates have declined, there are subgroups where survival rates and access to services have not changed or even worsened over time [ 25 — 28 ].
Despite an encouraging trend of increased interest in applying powerful GIS technology for improving maternal and newborn health outcomes in recent years, the literature on geographic access to maternal health services remains sparse. Within the emerging evidence, different GIS techniques have been used to map, extract or model maternal and newborn health outcomes [ 8 , 29 , 30 ].
This paper builds on the literature by applying GIS techniques to examine the impact of proximity to CHPS on the uptake of skilled birth care in rural Ghana. Calibration of the road network distance is discussed in subsequent sections.
Methods Data The data for the analysis come from the two most recent rounds and of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys GDHS , a geo-referenced database of health facilities and digitised topographic database of national road networks from a national programme of land surveillance.
The outcome variable of interest and controls were derived from the GDHS, whilst the main predictor of interest distance to CHPS and health facilities were derived from the geo-referenced database of health facilities and national road networks. Description of the datasets, variables and calibration of distances are discussed below.
Demographic and Health Surveys The and GDHS are nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of women and men aged 15—49 years and 15—59 years, respectively. The surveys collected demographic and health information on women, men, children and other members of households. Information on where a woman gave birth and who attended the birth was collected for all births five years preceding each survey.
The births recorded in the two surveys cover the period July to October , which coincide with the launch of the CHPS initiative in Prior to , CHPS was a rural policy [ 11 , 31 ]. The analysis is, therefore, restricted to rural communities. The outcome variable of interest focuses on the proficiency in the skills of the attendant at birth.
Skilled attendant is used to refer exclusively to people with midwifery skills e. The data cover births.
The response variable was binary coded 1 if a birth was attended by a skilled professional and 0 otherwise. To ensure minimal recall bias, we examined the consistency between reported place of birth and type of birth attendant. Non-institutional births reported to have been attended by skilled professionals constitute less than 0. The choice of control variables was based on literature and data availability. Geospatial database of health facilities and CHPS A national georeferenced database of health facilities providing care at birth and digital topographic data on road networks were used as input to a network analysis algorithm to calculate the distance from each PSU in the GDHS to the nearest health facility and also CHPS referal point, often referred to as a CHPS compound.
The calibration of network distance to nearest health facility and CHPS coumpound is discussed in the subsequent section.
The list of health facilities was compiled from three sources: a list of health facilities obtained from the Ghana Ministry of Health, a web resource of health facilities maintained by the Ghana Mininistry of Health and a georeferenced list of health facilities compiled by CERSGIS, University of Ghana. The lists were cross-checked and reconciled.
Facilities without latitude and longitude values were georeferenced manually by matching with facility and town names on Google Earth.