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Her military activity is connected to the papacy actions against those who were rejecting the Gregorian reform. Her name is also tied up with the future of next Jerusalem Latin patriarch.
At her recommendation, in , pope Urban II appoints Dagobert as archbishop of Pisa and in the winter of , also by countess intervention, the new pope Pas- cal II appoints the same Dagobert of Pisa as patriarch of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem Studies in Me- dieval History, , p.
You will be eternally blessed for fighting like a men against this antichrist heresy. The religious involvement imposed the chivalry redefining. The vow, the ethical code29, the religious ideals, giving up the secular life 30, the baptize and the hierarchical blessing31, are just few of the crusade knight virtues.
The promised spiritual rewards and the hope of finding a better life determined a great number of diverse people to become dedicated to the cause. People from different social classes, regardless the gender, age or ethnic group formed the centre of this crusade army. We can think that this flexible aggregation was the cause for the difficult analyze in defining the knight term.
The conjunction for this status was the military activity conducted by the participant, activity that gathered the nobles actions, organized in an army led by a well instructed leader and also the actions developed by the other social castes, all for the same cause and under the same name milites Christi Christ soldiers.
Among those who joined the crusade movement were also the women. Clarendon, , p. The war ac- tions or aggressions were forbidden in certain days: Friday, Passion Day, during the most important feasts Eastern or Christmas or during fasting.
This time the sacramental time was destined for knights to consolidate their faith.
Flori considered that you cannot speak about a chivalry sanctity as the whole. Jean Flori, op. Constantin Ittu, The living heraldry and her social role, Ed. Articles But several actions developed by them, received in time a certain notoriety and are accepted by most modern historians as heroic acts.
The late attempts to bring a necessary appreciation to women role in crusade had sometimes an opposite result. Their responsibilities and status in the medieval society determined some crusades historians to deny their milites Christi33 title. Because of this, the French historian Jean Flori thinks that the main factor who determined the minimizing of women contribution to the crusade battles is the Latin terms confusion, which were assimilating the crusader status with the knight status.
So, the first difficulty when talking about the crusade participants is the knight term interpretation. This opinion could hide one of the possible explanations for the military action undertaken by other social milieus, but mainly the women activity. Probably J. Similar is the analysis of the German historian Karl Leyser who considered that taking into account the recruitment in the crusade army it cannot be mentioned a division. For this reason people understood to join this campaign sustained by the Rome bishop.
This convention allowed also poor people to gain miles title, downloading the equipment from hiring. For these women, crusade was connected with Christ image and his figurative implications. The crusade was a way to conversion, a path to redemption or a way to establish the divine order. The idea of imitatio Christi, was like a penitence exercise or a adequate reaction to a role model. The crusade was seen by these women not like a war, but like an offering brought to Christ.
They were rather looking for a martyrdom, not a war When interpreting the crusade phenomena, historian Christopher Tyerman debates about the geographical area of the crusade assault.
The conquest of other cities for example Antiohia , wanders from the crusade ideal and the pilgrim- age actions.
The spiritual purpose, that also reveals from the eye witnesses writ- ings40, who contributed to the participants enthusiasm is neutralized by future war practices Theoretically, the cause was suppose to be fair, in order to justify the violence in front of God. Sheehan, Studies in Medieval Culture, 37 Kalama- zoo, , p.
For instance: The idea of spirituality based violence was against Christian doctrine and the message was especially addressed against those who practiced violence. In this situation you could speak about a crusade dualism.
On one hand the concern for the spiritual rewards, the care for redemption and the reconciliation with Divinity and on the other hand the enrichment perspective, by colonization and conquest of some economically developed regions Both cases represented a pretty attractive offer in order to convince women to participate in this expedition. The main focus was on these spiritual or material resorts who were complying with the wishes of all social structures, an ideal described both by the time sources and by the eye witness statements.
So, the women joy for leaving to Jerusalem is described by Albert de Aachen, in its chronicle 46, and also by Guib- ert de Nogent. The last recorded that: Many of them, especially those representing the church, considered the expedition as a pilgrimage. This is one of the reasons why the description is approached in the pilgrimage spiritual manner, visibly censoring the violence.
Albert de Aachen, monk and historian from the first crusade, is one of those who consider the expedition to Jerusalem as being equivalent with the pilgrimage act. Those who were breaking these rules were excluded from the monastery.
On the other hand if we consider the offer for the participants, who were expecting to colonize the Levant, the enrich- ment reward and a certain feudatory freedom, we could explain the cruelty actions carried out by them. Ekkhard, superior of Aura and participant to the crusade, describes the way Christian families were preparing for the long journey: The sermons held by western priests, are mentioning even now how enthusiastic were the western people.
So, the Latin chronicle from the Monte Cassino convent registers: They all had crosses sewed on their arm and shared the same goal.
This as- sessment participation can be found in most of Latin chronicles.
There is no doubt that among those who partici- pated to crusade there were also women. But the difficulty or the impossibility, in this matter, is having a clear evidence about the number53, name, title or duty that each had in confronting the oriental opponents. Not even a careful investigation of the official documents, charters or correspondences can offer sufficient informa- tion for drafting the crusade women profile. We just want to show some useful texts for those , after reading this article, would hopefully become curious about the topic and would reflect at this historical events that changed the world.
So, we stuck only to name those who particularly recall women participation in the crusade. It is pretty difficult to estimate because of the excessive contemporary figures some of them head one million people. The best evaluation is given by the British historian Thomas Asbridge. In his opinion there were between Cornelia Dumitriu and Miruna Anriescu, Ed.
The same importance have the contemporary Arabic evidences which offer details about some wom- en role in confronting Levant Moslems. After Ibn al-Athir, we find out, from another Arab contemporary, about the bravery of three militant women who were wearing men cloths body armor who during the Al Quds Jerusalem conquests fell captive in the Moslem military camp.
Together with her husband, the Danish prince Svend, they were killed in one of the crusades batles in Asia Minor, Cappadocia area. In the crusade, her father Odo I died also in the batle. For more details: Historian Ekkehard de Aura relates that Ida was killed during the batle, but there are other myths who say that she survived, as a prisoner and being part of caliph Aq Sunqur al-Hajib de Alep hareem. The legend also say that she was Imad ad-Din Zengi c. Enid Grant, London: Together with him and his brother Godfroy de Bouillon she fought in the first crusade and in October she died from a disease, somewhere in the Marash region, in Armenia.
We find this attitude under different forms in all crusade nations glossary. With a high emotional im- pact it defines, in different situations, the women behavior, especially in those doubtful periods pending great dangers. Their action could also describe a type of social support, indicating their wish to participate to this miracle encounter with the holy lands. The most important narrations about this attitude are given by historians Bernold de Saint-Blaise, Guibert de Nogent or Albert de Aachen.
It was truly a wonderful feeling, who determined those people to follow this jour- ney. This attitude explains the future women behavior which turned out to be devotional. From her fortune, after the dead of her husband, she financed the first crusade and the Catholic church for building some worship places.
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