learning photography in the film-based age as compared to the digital-based era of today is like least read and annotate it your favorite PDF reader. The best. These notes are free to use by anyone learning or teaching photography. 1. Choosing a camera - there Digital SLR Camera with Interchangeable zoom lens. Her most recent titles include Digital Photography For. Dummies .. photography, but also learn techniques that enable you to take full advantage of all the.
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Learning how exposure works will help you to take control of your camera Aa atmospheric shot of an underground tunnel - digital photography for beginners. There's lots to learn if you want to get the most from your DSLR but lets start by digging When this is selected, you as the photographer set the aperture and the. Digital cameras employ an electronic sensor consisting of a large number of square cells or “pixels”. Photons hitting a cell create an electrical charge.
Seeing the pictures you captured is almost indescribable. But to stay at the top of your game it is important to continuously improve and learn. Starting with new cameras and finishing with undiscovered and new methods of photography. Better equipment helps, but knowledge and experience help a lot more. These books will help you learn photography skills first hand from some of the best photographers in the world. Also check out our top sources of photography inspiration post to see a few more great sites to discover and share photography.
Aperture is one of the most important aspects of photography as it directly influences the depth of field — that is, the amount of an image that is in focus. A large depth of field achieved by using a small aperture large f-number would mean that a large distance within the scene is in focus, such as the foreground to the background of the landscape below.
The shutter speed, measured in seconds or more often fractions of a second , is the amount of time the shutter stays open when taking a photograph. The longer the shutter stays open, the more light passes through to the sensor to be captured. Further Reading: learn more about Shutter Priority Mode. In program mode, you are able to set either the aperture or shutter speed, and the camera will maintain the correct exposure by adjusting the other one accordingly, i.
This gives you additional freedom that using either aperture priority or shutter priority cannot give without switching between shooting modes. Manual M Manual mode is exactly what it sounds like, you are given full control over the exposure determination, setting both the aperture and shutter speed yourself. The term originated in film photography, where film of different sensitivities could be used depending on the shooting conditions, and it is no different in digital photography.
This will give you images of the highest quality, with very little grain or noise. A high ISO number, such as ISO , will increase the sensitivity of the sensor, effectively multiplying the small amount of available light to give you a correctly exposed image.
This multiplication effect comes with a side effect of increased noise on the image, which looks like a fine grain, reducing the overall image quality. This image was taken as the sun was going down, meaning there was not much ambient light.
Outside on a sunny day, select ISO and see how it goes. If it clouds over, maybe select an ISO between If you move indoors, consider an ISO of around or above these are approximate starting points. Auto-ISO is a very useful tool when starting out with your camera, as it is allows you to define an upper limit i.
They all control either the amount of light entering the camera aperture, shutter speed or the amount of light required by the camera ISO for a given exposure. Therefore, they are all linked, and understanding the relationship between them is crucial to being able to take control of your camera.
A change in one of the settings will impact the other two. Therefore, to balance the exposure, you could do the following: Situation 1: Reduce the shutter speed by a factor of 4, i. Situation 2: Reduce the ISO by a factor of 4, i.
Aperture, shutter speed and ISO are all facotrs that influence your exposure, and are all linked. They all have the net effect of reducing the amount of light by a factor of 4, countering the change in aperture. Further Reading: Read more about the Exposure Triangle. Master Metering Through out all of the above discussion, I have said that the camera calculates the exposure depending on the amount of available light, but what is it actually doing?
When taking a photograph, using any form of automatic exposure calculation e. This is known as metering, and it is the reason that if you point your camera at a bright white scene, such as after it has snowed, and take a photograph the resulting image will always appear darker than you or I see it. Similarly, if you point your camera at a really dark scene, such as a low-lit room, and take a photograph the resulting image will always be brighter than you or I see it. The scene is always being averaged by the camera and most of the time that results in the image appearing to be correctly exposed.
However, you can control what areas of the scene are being assessed by the camera in order to influence the way in which the exposure is metered. A change in one of the settings will impact the other two.
Therefore, to balance the exposure, you could do the following:. Aperture, shutter speed and ISO are all facotrs that influence your exposure, and are all linked. They all have the net effect of reducing the amount of light by a factor of 4, countering the change in aperture. Read more about the Exposure Triangle. Through out all of the above discussion, I have said that the camera calculates the exposure depending on the amount of available light, but what is it actually doing?
When taking a photograph, using any form of automatic exposure calculation e.
This is known as metering, and it is the reason that if you point your camera at a bright white scene, such as after it has snowed, and take a photograph the resulting image will always appear darker than you or I see it. Similarly, if you point your camera at a really dark scene, such as a low-lit room, and take a photograph the resulting image will always be brighter than you or I see it. The scene is always being averaged by the camera and most of the time that results in the image appearing to be correctly exposed.
However, you can control what areas of the scene are being assessed by the camera in order to influence the way in which the exposure is metered. Practically speaking: They will both provide a fairly consistent measure of the exposure required and, if you select one mode and stick with it, you will soon begin to understand when a scene will be under exposed i. That is where exposure compensation comes in. A Beginners Guide to Metering Modes. It allows you to either increase or decrease the cameras default meter reading to account for the actual brightness of a scene.
A spring lamb leaping in front of a snowy hillside. Straight out of camera, with the snow caught as grey. The bright snowy background caused my camera to underexpose this scene by nearly two stops, which could have been corrected by exposure compensation in camera. Regardless of what shooting mode you are using, or what ISO you define, the chances are there will be a subject of your image that you want to have in focus. If that focus is not achieved, the image will not be what you wanted.
AF-S — autofocus-single.
This is best used when taking photos of stationary subjects such as portraits of people, landscapes, buildings etc. When you half-press the shutter, the focus will be acquired and locked on that point for as long as you hold the button down.
If you want to change to focus, you need to release the button, recompose and then re-half-press. AF-C — autofocus-continuous. This is best used when taking photos of action or moving subjects such as sports and wildlife.
When you half-press the shutter, focus will be acquired and locked on to a given subject. When that subject moves, the focus will adjust with it, refocusing all of the time until the photograph is taken. That switch is an override for if you want to manually focus your lens. If you want to make use of the autofocus modes discussed above, ensure the lens is set to AF. Understanding Focus Modes. Focus Points Both of those focus modes rely on what are known as focus points.
When you half-press the shutter, you should see one of these squares be highlighted in red. That is the active focus point, and it is that position within the frame that the camera is focussing on.
A viewfinder with 9 focus points is shown below:. New DSLRs can come with over 50 focus points and the temptation is to leave it on fully automatic focus point selection, with the thinking that the camera will be able to select the correct focus point. However, only you know what you want to focus on, and there is no better way than ensuring the correct subject is in focus than by using one focus point, and placing that focus point over the subject.
If you select a single focus point, you should be able to change which point is active fairly easily either by using directional buttons one of the dials. Upon understanding the concept, read the Photography Exposure Triangle Guide and learn to adjust all settings simultaneously, using stops. The Shutter Speed Column shows different standard shutter speeds in 1 stop intervals. This is known as stopping down. The opposite applies for a decrease in shutter speed.
In reality and physics speed is provided in distance or units per second.
The shutter speed, provided in seconds, controlled through camera settings, is not a true speed. Knowing the information from the camera input shutter speed the photographer could calculate the actual speed of the shutter, although this is not required.
For Shutter Speed, Exposure Stops Work as Follows: An increase of 1 stop doubles the amount of light exposed to the image sensor, creating a brighter exposure with more motion blur. A decrease of 1 stop decreases the amount of light by half, creating a darker exposure with less motion blur. The following example images show 1 stop increases in shutter speed with no changes to ISO or f-stop. For example, a stop up in shutter speed would require a stop down in ISO, f-stop, or a combination of both, to maintain the same image brightness.
This is taught in the Exposure Triangle Photography Guide. Remember, all other settings are currently arbitrary and remain constant.
Reference the example image below. You selected this new shutter speed in your camera and pressed the shutter button. There was no need to guess at the ideal shutter speed or take test images! This is a user selected setting providing in camera.
The photographer can control image attributes by varying shutter speeds. Only by testing each of these with your camera setup will you actually learn and understand the concepts.