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Computer & Internet Basics Pre-Test. Directions: Write your answer in the space below each question. 1. Name three things that get information into a computer. This PDF contains some unfamiliar questions from Previous papers. MCQ's from Database concepts; MCQ's from Computer basics; MCQ's from. Basic Computer Knowledge questions and answers for bank exams with explanation for interview, competitive examination and entrance test. Fully solved .

Philosophical background[ edit ] The question of whether it is possible for machines to think has a long history, which is firmly entrenched in the distinction between dualist and materialist views of the mind. For we can easily understand a machine's being constituted so that it can utter words, and even emit some responses to action on it of a corporeal kind, which brings about a change in its organs; for instance, if touched in a particular part it may ask what we wish to say to it; if in another part it may exclaim that it is being hurt, and so on. But it never happens that it arranges its speech in various ways, in order to reply appropriately to everything that may be said in its presence, as even the lowest type of man can do. Descartes therefore prefigures the Turing test by defining the insufficiency of appropriate linguistic response as that which separates the human from the automaton. Descartes fails to consider the possibility that future automata might be able to overcome such insufficiency, and so does not propose the Turing test as such, even if he prefigures its conceptual framework and criterion. According to dualism, the mind is non-physical or, at the very least, has non-physical properties [11] and, therefore, cannot be explained in purely physical terms. According to materialism, the mind can be explained physically, which leaves open the possibility of minds that are produced artificially.

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Economics Notes for class 12th Samashti. In his book, Language, Truth and Logic , Ayer suggested a protocol to distinguish between a conscious man and an unconscious machine: "The only ground I can have for asserting that an object which appears to be conscious is not really a conscious being, but only a dummy or a machine, is that it fails to satisfy one of the empirical tests by which the presence or absence of consciousness is determined.

Moreover, it is not certain that Ayer's popular philosophical classic was familiar to Turing. In other words, a thing is not conscious if it fails the consciousness test.

Alan Turing[ edit ] Researchers in the United Kingdom had been exploring "machine intelligence" for up to ten years prior to the founding of the field of artificial intelligence AI research in A, B and C. A and C are to be rather poor chess players, B is the operator who works the paper machine.

Two rooms are used with some arrangement for communicating moves, and a game is played between C and either A or the paper machine. C may find it quite difficult to tell which he is playing. Turing begins the paper with the claim, "I propose to consider the question 'Can machines think? Turing chooses not to do so; instead he replaces the question with a new one, "which is closely related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words.

In this game both the man and the woman aim to convince the guests that they are the other. Huma Shah argues that this two-human version of the game was presented by Turing only to introduce the reader to the machine-human question-answer test.

These questions replace our original, "Can machines think? In this version, which Turing discussed in a BBC radio broadcast, a jury asks questions of a computer and the role of the computer is to make a significant proportion of the jury believe that it is really a man. If a keyword is found, a rule that transforms the user's comments is applied, and the resulting sentence is returned. If a keyword is not found, ELIZA responds either with a generic riposte or by repeating one of the earlier comments.

A group of experienced psychiatrists analysed a combination of real patients and computers running PARRY through teleprinters. Another group of 33 psychiatrists were shown transcripts of the conversations.

The two groups were then asked to identify which of the "patients" were human and which were computer programs.

Searle noted that software such as ELIZA could pass the Turing test simply by manipulating symbols of which they had no understanding. Without understanding, they could not be described as "thinking" in the same sense people are.

Therefore, Searle concludes, the Turing test cannot prove that a machine can think. The Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies in Massachusetts , United States, organised the prizes up to and including the contest. As Loebner described it, one reason the competition was created is to advance the state of AI research, at least in part, because no one had taken steps to implement the Turing test despite 40 years of discussing it.

This highlighted several of the shortcomings of the Turing test discussed below : The winner won, at least in part, because it was able to "imitate human typing errors"; [41] the unsophisticated interrogators were easily fooled; [42] and some researchers in AI have been led to feel that the test is merely a distraction from more fruitful research.

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However, the competition has awarded the bronze medal every year for the computer system that, in the judges' opinions, demonstrates the "most human" conversational behaviour among that year's entries. Learning AI Jabberwacky won in and Early Loebner Prize rules restricted conversations: Each entry and hidden-human conversed on a single topic, [44] thus the interrogators were restricted to one line of questioning per entity interaction.

The restricted conversation rule was lifted for the Loebner Prize. Interaction duration between judge and entity has varied in Loebner Prizes.

In Loebner , at the University of Surrey, each interrogator was allowed five minutes to interact with an entity, machine or hidden-human. Between and , the interaction time allowed in Loebner Prizes was more than twenty minutes. Player C, through a series of written questions, attempts to determine which of the other two players is a man, and which of the two is the woman.

Player A, the man, tries to trick player C into making the wrong decision, while player B tries to help player C. Figure adapted from Saygin, Player A is a man, player B is a woman and player C who plays the role of the interrogator is of either sex. In the imitation game, player C is unable to see either player A or player B, and can communicate with them only through written notes. By asking questions of player A and player B, player C tries to determine which of the two is the man and which is the woman.

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Player A's role is to trick the interrogator into making the wrong decision, while player B attempts to assist the interrogator in making the right one. Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman?

The computer is now charged with the role of the man, while player B continues to attempt to assist the interrogator. Similar to the original imitation game test, the role of player A is performed by a computer.

However, the role of player B is performed by a man rather than a woman. Let us fix our attention on one particular digital computer C. Is it true that by modifying this computer to have an adequate storage, suitably increasing its speed of action, and providing it with an appropriate programme, C can be made to play satisfactorily the part of A in the imitation game, the part of B being taken by a man? Standard interpretation[ edit ] Common understanding has it that the purpose of the Turing test is not specifically to determine whether a computer is able to fool an interrogator into believing that it is a human, but rather whether a computer could imitate a human.

The role of the interrogator is not to determine which is male and which is female, but which is a computer and which is a human. There are issues about duration, but the standard interpretation generally considers this limitation as something that should be reasonable.

Imitation game vs. The test that employs the party game and compares frequencies of success is referred to as the "Original Imitation Game Test", whereas the test consisting of a human judge conversing with a human and a machine is referred to as the "Standard Turing Test", noting that Sterrett equates this with the "standard interpretation" rather than the second version of the imitation game. Sterrett agrees that the standard Turing test STT has the problems that its critics cite but feels that, in contrast, the original imitation game test OIG test so defined is immune to many of them, due to a crucial difference: Unlike the STT, it does not make similarity to human performance the criterion, even though it employs human performance in setting a criterion for machine intelligence.

A man can fail the OIG test, but it is argued that it is a virtue of a test of intelligence that failure indicates a lack of resourcefulness: The OIG test requires the resourcefulness associated with intelligence and not merely "simulation of human conversational behaviour".

The general structure of the OIG test could even be used with non-verbal versions of imitation games. Saygin has suggested that maybe the original game is a way of proposing a less biased experimental design as it hides the participation of the computer.

Turing never makes clear whether the interrogator in his tests is aware that one of the participants is a computer. However, if there were a machine that did have the potential to pass a Turing test, it would be safe to assume a double blind control would be necessary.

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To return to the original imitation game, he states only that player A is to be replaced with a machine, not that player C is to be made aware of this replacement. The philosophy of mind , psychology , and modern neuroscience have been unable to provide definitions of "intelligence" and "thinking" that are sufficiently precise and general to be applied to machines.

Without such definitions, the central questions of the philosophy of artificial intelligence cannot be answered. The Turing test, even if imperfect, at least provides something that can actually be measured.

As such, it is a pragmatic attempt to answer a difficult philosophical question. Breadth of subject matter[ edit ] The format of the test allows the interrogator to give the machine a wide variety of intellectual tasks.

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Turing wrote that "the question and answer method seems to be suitable for introducing almost any one of the fields of human endeavour that we wish to include. The test can be extended to include video input, as well as a "hatch" through which objects can be passed: this would force the machine to demonstrate the skill of vision and robotics as well. Together, these represent almost all of the major problems that artificial intelligence research would like to solve.

It is a limited form of Turing's question-answer game which compares the machine against the abilities of experts in specific fields such as literature or chemistry. IBM 's Watson machine achieved success in a man versus machine television quiz show of human knowledge, Jeopardy! Instead, as already noted, the test which he described in his seminal paper requires the computer to be able to compete successfully in a common party game, and this by performing as well as the typical man in answering a series of questions so as to pretend convincingly to be the woman contestant.

Given the status of human sexual dimorphism as one of the most ancient of subjects , it is thus implicit in the above scenario that the questions to be answered will involve neither specialised factual knowledge nor information processing technique.

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The challenge for the computer, rather, will be to demonstrate empathy for the role of the female, and to demonstrate as well a characteristic aesthetic sensibility—both of which qualities are on display in this snippet of dialogue which Turing has imagined: Interrogator: Will X please tell me the length of his or her hair? Contestant: My hair is shingled, and the longest strands are about nine inches long. When Turing does introduce some specialised knowledge into one of his imagined dialogues, the subject is not maths or electronics, but poetry: Interrogator: In the first line of your sonnet which reads, "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day," would not "a spring day" do as well or better?

Witness: It wouldn't scan. Interrogator: How about "a winter's day. Witness: Yes, but nobody wants to be compared to a winter's day. Turing thus once again demonstrates his interest in empathy and aesthetic sensitivity as components of an artificial intelligence; and in light of an increasing awareness of the threat from an AI run amok, [62] it has been suggested [63] that this focus perhaps represents a critical intuition on Turing's part, i.

It is further noted, however, that whatever inspiration Turing might be able to lend in this direction depends upon the preservation of his original vision, which is to say, further, that the promulgation of a "standard interpretation" of the Turing test—i. Weaknesses[ edit ] Turing did not explicitly state that the Turing test could be used as a measure of intelligence, or any other human quality. He wanted to provide a clear and understandable alternative to the word "think", which he could then use to reply to criticisms of the possibility of "thinking machines" and to suggest ways that research might move forward.