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10TH STD SCIENCE BOOK

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Download NCERT Science book for Class 10 in PDF. Also download the chapter -wise NCERT Solutions for class 10 Science. Text book published by Government of Tamil Nadu. 10th std science textbook in pdf (१० वी विज्ञान आणि Maharashtra state board 10th std science textbooks in pdf are as follows in two.


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This is followed by perspiration Symptoms: The person feels normal for some i Continuous fever. Prevention and control: Transmission of typhoid i Sanitary measures include ground is through food and water contaminated fogging with disinfectants. Flies are also impor- ii Closure of stagnant pools of water tant transmitting agents of this disease. Isolation of iii Using mosquito nets and repellants the patient, control of flies, hygienic food also, will grossly lower the chance habits, proper public sanitary measures for infection.

The sexual stage of Plasmodium takes place in female Anopheles mosquito whereas the vegetative stage occurs in man. When a female Anopheles mosquito bites an infected person, these parasites enter the mosquito and undergo further development in the mosquito body. The parasites multiply within the body of the mosquito to form sporozoites that are stored in the salivary glands of mosquito. When these mosquitoes bite a person, the sporozoites the infectious stage are introduced into his body; they multiply within the liver cells first and enter the RBC of man, resulting in the rupture of RBC.

This results in the release of toxic substance called haemozoin which is responsible for the chill and high fever, recurring three to four days.

He had his school education and higher studies in medicine in England. Later he was posted at the Presidency General Hospital, Calcutta. Ross studied about malaria between and As he was working in Bangalore, he noticed the connection between water as breeding ground of mosquitoes and the spread of malaria.

He discovered the presence of malarial parasites in the female Anopheles mosquito when he was working on malaria at Secunderabad. He demonstrated that malaria is transmitted from infected individual to a healthy person by the bite of mosquito.

In , he was awarded the Nobel prize for his work on malaria. Some of the fungi are parasitic on man iii Stools with excess mucous and and cause diseases blood clot. Three different genera of fungi namely, It is a water and food borne disease. Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Tri- House flies act as mechanical carrier and serve to transmit the parasite from the chophyton cause ringworm.

Chapter 2 faeces of infected persons to the food — thereby contaminating the food and water. Precaution may be taken by providing germ free clean water; clean food hab- its. Good sanitary facilities will control the flies.

The above fungi live on the dead cells of outer layer of skin in man and cause super- ficial infections in skin, hair, nail, etc; and form patches and Itching Transmission: By direct contact or through fomites such as towels, combs, etc,.

Avoid contact with infected person and ar-. Some germs may remain viable outside the body of the hosts and may be trans- ferred indirectly through close inanimate 2. The transmission can take place fomites. Direct Transmission: By direct trans- Various animals such as ticks, mites, fer of germs from the patient to normal birds, insects and mammals transmit dis- healthy person through close contact, eases like cholera, malaria, rabies, etc; the diseases like diphtheria, pneumonia, cholera, typhoid, measles, mumps, etc,.

Immunity is part of a complex system of defence reaction in the body. It means the defence against or specific resistance ex- hibited towards the infectious organisms and their products.

The infectious organisms that invade the body and the toxins produced by them and any foreign protein entering the body fig 2.

During sneezing, coughing and talk- The immune system which includes blood ing, the droplets from the patients are dis- plasma, lymph and lymphocytes analyze the charged from the mouth and the nose and chemical nature of the antigens and produce enter the air. While a normal person is inhal- the suitable proteinaceous substances called ing such air, laden with the droplets, he gets antibodies to detoxify the antigens.

Through the umblical cord, Types of Immunity: The natural or innate immunity that ena- Indirect transmission through fomites: Plant diseases do not affect animals. Acquired or Specific Immunity: The polio drops and two kinds — active acquired immunity and triple antigen injected into the child in passive acquired immunity.

Active acquired immunity: Passive Acquired Immunity: This kind of immunity is developed by In this type of immunity, a readymade an- our body, during the first infection of any tibody is introduced from outside instead pathogen.

The antibodies produced in the of stimulating the body to produce anti- blood stays for a long period and kills the body with antigenic stimulus. Chapter 2 If the antibody production is stimulated it is called Natural Passive Acquired. If the readymade antibody is given to an individual artificially, produced in some other animal and extracted it is called Artificial Passive Acquired Immunity. This immunity is not.

Antibodies or Immunoglobins are found in breast milk. Through breast milk antibodies are passed on to the nursing baby.

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Bottle fed infants do not have the advantage of fighting the ingested pathogens on their own until the antibodies are produced in them. An infant should be breast fed for a minimum of six months. Medical establishment knows that infants who are breastfed contract fewer infections than bottle fed infants. Breast milk protects the child, against bacteria like Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shig- Chapter 2.

The immunization schedule indicates the stages at which the vaccinations and inoculations have to be given to safeguard children against different diseases. The table given below lists the names of vaccines, their dosages and the stage at which they have to be administered.

Immunisation through inoculation is a mass means of protecting a greater number of people against the spread of diseases. Tuberculosis Vaccine BCG: Tuberculosis Vaccine Fig 2. Diphtheria, Pertussis, Prevention: Mumps , Measles, Rubella a means of prevention of the disease.

Tetanus toxoid ways: Hygienic life. Chapter 2 of the symptom of the disease. These medicines that usually fights the microbial either reduce the effect of the disease infections. Immunisation or kill the cause of the disease. The antibiotics are used as blocks to the pathways of the disease without 2. A detailed account of the role of Biotech- b Treatment not involving medicine: As a person is recovering from the effect of fracture or neurotic problem, Biotechnologically synthesized insulin yoga and physiotherapy do a great has been effectively used replacing the deal of help to do normal activities.

HIV and Prevention the habit. Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syn-. Test for Virus: Western Blot — a confirmatory test. Protected sexual behaviour. Safe sex practices. Screening the blood for HIV before the body and the toxins produced by blood transfusion. Avoid tattooing using common needle. Entamoeba histolytica, 1. Pick out a case of healthy state of Trypanosoma gambiense, an individual. Taenia solium. X is recovering from an 7.

Y is taking insulin injection Sneezing,Droplet from mouth, everyday, Placenta,Utensils of patients. Z is very much depressed, 8. K is attending to his duty and some other animal is injected into spends time joyfully, your body, what kind of immunity do 2. Which one of the following is a state you gain?

Pick out the bacterial disease. Pick out a non-antigen. Entry of through air. Tuberculosis,Meningitis, Germ, Typhoid,Cholera. Toxins of germs, 5. Plasmodium vivax,. In order to lead a healthy life a person should enjoy physical, mental and social well being. Tamil selvan has inherited colour blindness from his father. Marasmus and Kwashiorkar are both protein deficiency defects.

Marasmus differs from Kwashiorkar in enlarged belly and swelling in the face. Are these symptoms for the above diseases correct? If not, correct it. A list of disorders are given below. Pick out the odd one out and give reasons.

Ramya is suffering from bleeding gum and loosening teeth. On a diagnosis, it was found to have been caused by vitamin deficiency. Suggest Ramya the kind of vitamin that is lacking in his food and tell your friend the name of deficiency disease that he suffers from. Match B, C with A. The immunity gained on getting b. In a day what are the occasions in. Chapter 2 a. Suggest the immunization sched. In this chapter, we will learn the structure and functioning of the Two or more people when gather together, nervous system and the endocrine sys- each one is set with an interest and apti- tem in man.

But when it is the question of main- tenance of an order, a systematic working among them, there is a need for someone to control and co-ordinate them so that a harmony prevails.

Similarly the functions of organs and organ system is our body cannot go on in their own way but must be coordinated to maintain the harmon- ius steady state of body functioning called Homeostasis.

Coordination is the proc- ess through which two or more organs interact and compliment the functions of one or the other. In our body the neural or nervous system and the endocrine sys- tem do the function of coordinating and integrating all the activities of the organs so that the body works efficiently by syn- chronizing the functions.

The nervous system provides an organ- Fig 3. Axon contains axoplasm inside and is cov- The nervous system of an animal is com- ered by a membrane called neurilemma. In some neu- or nerve cells which can detect, rons called myelinated neurons an addi- receive and transmit different kinds tional white fatty fibre called myelin sheath of stimuli. Myelin sheath is not continous over the neurilemma.

The ii The nerve fibres which are certain gaps left by the myelin sheath on the axon bundles of extended processes of are called nodes of Ranvier. Over the my- nerve cells.

Types of nerve cells: Nerve cells or neurons are the structural and functional units of the nervous sys- a Myelinated or Medullated or White tem. Billions of nerve cells make up our When the axon is enclosed by the brain. A nerve cell is a microscopic struc- white fatty myelin cover it is called ture consisting of three major parts namely Myelinated or Medullated or White cell body, dendrites and axon.

This forms the cerebral cortex of our brain. Cell body: The axon is covered by only neurilemma and Schwann Dendrites: This type of neuron is found Dendrites or Dendrons are shorter fibres in the white matter of cerebrum.

Dendrites transmit electri- The embryonic nervous tissue cal impulses towards the cyton. An Axon: Chapter 3 are made up of bipolar neurons. The human nervous system is divided Each bipolar neuron has a cell body into and two process at the ends, one acting as axon and the other acting a The Central Nervous System CNS as Dendron. The CNS includes the brain and spi- Synapse: The dendrites and the synaptic nal cord and it is the site of information knobs of the axons of neighbouring processing and control.

This point of the body associated with the central nerv- contact between the neighbouring nerve ous system. The CNS is ac- study the principle behind the ad- commodated in the protective bony struc- ministration of anesthesia at the time tures namely skull and vertebral column. Find out if the fat soluble Meninges: The outer- most cover lying below the skull and ver- tebral column is doubly thick and is called 3. The middle covering is thin The conduction of stimuli by the nerve cells and vascularised and is called Arachnoid is called nerve impulse.

The dendrites membrane.

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The innermost cover is a very will receive the stimuli from the receptor thin delicate membrane and is closely ap- sense organ and conduct the same as plied on the outer surface of brain and spi- electrical impulse to the axon through the nal cord and it is called Piamater.

At the synapse, the synaptic knobs release out chemical substances called 3. But, he pass it to the neighbouring neuron. Fore brain consists of cerebrum, thala- mus and hypothalamus. This forms the major part of the human brain nearly two third of the brain is cer- ebrum. A deep cleft called median cleft divides the cerebrum longitudinally into two halves as right and left cerebral hemi- spheres, which are united at the base by a sheet of nervous tissue called corpus callosum, The outer region of the cere- brum is distinguished as, the grey matter or cerebral cortex and the inner region is called white matter.

Cerebral cortex: It consists of the nerve cell bodies of several layers of greyish nerve cells giv- ing grey colour — so called as grey matter. The increased surface area of the cer- ebral cortex in man is folded and thrown into a pattern of convolutions consisting of ridges and furrows.

Cerebral cortex contains: Motor areas: Motor areas are the sites of order or command of the cerebrum, from where Fig 3. Chapter 3 tiation of voluntary activities takes place here. Functions of cerebrum: Cerebrum is the seat of conscious- ness, intelligence, memory, imagina- tion and reasoning.

It receives impulses from different parts of the body and initi- ates voluntary activities. Specific areas of cerebrum are associated with spe- cific functions. Thus there is a centre for hearing, another for seeing, another for tasting, another for smelling, another for speaking and so on. A damage in a specific centre of cerebrum will de- prive the particular faculty from doing its Fig 3.

Sensory areas: Cerebrum wraps around a structure These are the sites where the sensory called thalamus — a major conducting functions of the various sense organs are centre for sensory and motor signalling.

Association areas: It lies at the base of the thalamus. It These are responsible for complex controls body temperature, urge to eat and functions like intersensory associations, drink, regulation of sexual behaviour, ex- memory and communication. White matter of cerebrum: The inner part of the cerebrum ly- ing below the cerebral cortex is called white matter and it consists of bundles of nerve fibres with myelin sheath giv- ing the white colour.

Some of these bun- dles of nerve fibres connect the different parts of the cerebrum while others con- nect the cerebrum with the rest of the brain and spinal cord. Within the cerebral hemispheres are present cavities called ventricles, filled with a nutritive fluid called cerebro spinal Fig 3. The mid brain is located between the This is a tubular structure, a continua- thalamus and the hind brain. A canal called tion of the brain lying in the neural canal cerebral aqueduct passes through the of the vertebral column.

The three me- mid brain. The dorsal portion of the mid ninges — Piamater, Arachnoid membrane brain consists of four hemispherical bod- and the Duramater cover the spinal cord ies called corpora quadrigemina which as in the case of brain. Hind brain: The spinal nerves arise from these en- Hind brain comprises of pons, cerebel- largements.

The lower end of the spinal lum and medulla oblongata. On the mid dorsal side of the It lies below the cerebrum and consists spinal cord is found a narrow depression of a median portion and two lateral lobes. Running through the center of the spinal cord is the central canal, an extension Pons: Outer region of the spinal cord nects the lobes of cerebellum. It relays the contains medullated white neurons and information from the cerebrum to cerebel- the inner region contains non-medullated lum.

It also contains sleep centre and res- grey neurons. The spinal cord conducts piratory centre. Medulla oblongata: Medulla is the posterior most part of the 3. It acts as a coordination pathway for both The nerves arising from the brain and spi- ascending and descending nerve tracts. Medulla is the centre for several reflexes involved in the regulation of heartbeat, a Cranial nerves: Twelve pairs of cranial nerves arise The ventricle of the medulla remains from the brain.

Some of the cranial connected with the ventricles of the cer- nerves are sensory nerves taking ebral hemisphere. Some of the cranial nerves are the. Chapter 3 brain to the effector organ. Thus, all spinal nerves cortex and adrenal me- are mixed nerves.

The chemical coordination of physiological processes to maintain the homeostasis is the work of endocrine system. Endocrines control and coordinate the physical proc- esses of growth, reproduction and suste- nance of life. Endocrine system consists of a number of endocrine glands and their hormones.

Endocrine glands are ductless glands without ducts , secreting the chemical substances called hormones. The hor- mones are carried by the blood from the site of production to the site of action. Fig 3. The various en- docrine glands found in different regions Chemically hormones are proteins or in man are as follows: Though the hor-. Pituitary gland: It is a tiny gland of the size of a pea at- tached to the hypothalamus of the brain.

Since some of the endocrine glands are regulated by the pituitary gland, it is called as the conductor of endocrine orchestra. Divisions or lobes of pituitary gland Pituitary gland is differentiated into an anterior lobe called adenohypophysis and a posterior lobe called neurohypo- physis. Adenohypophysis It secretes a number of hormones.

The important hormones and their functions and malfunctions are as follows: Chapter 3 Follicle stimulating hor- It stimulates the maturation of graafian follicles in mone FSH the ovary in the female, to produce the eggs and sperm formation in the males. Lutenizing hormone LH LH in female causes discharge of egg from graafian in female follicle — a process, called ovulation and production or interstitial cell stimu- of female sex hormone oestrogen and progester- lating hormone ICSH in one.

Neuro hypophysis posterior lobe: It stores two hormones, namely oxytocin and vasopressin which are produced in the hypothalamus of the brain and releases them when they are required. Hormones of Neuro Functions and malfunctions hypophysis Oxytocin It speeds up the child birth process, by stimulating the contraction and relaxation of the uterus in the female.

Vasopressin It helps in the reabsorption of water, producing concen- or antidiuretic hor- trated urine in small quantity. Thyroid gland: Functions of thyroxine: Thyroxine is an iodinated of tissues. Thyroid gland bulges as a swelling in the neck and it is called as goiter. The symptoms are high metabolic rate, high blood pressure, high irritability, profuse sweating, loss of weight, fatigueness and protrusion of eyeballs.

Thyroid disorders: The islets of Langerhans:. Chapter 3 crine gland. The endocrine portion is blood is low. Alpha cells produce a glucose level. Adrenal gland Supra renal gland: On each kidney is found an adrenal gland. Aldosterone Mineralocorticoid: It maintains mineral metabolism, by favouring reabsorption of sodium and wa- ter and excretion of potassium and phos- phate ions. It maintains electrolyte balance, body fluid volume, osmotic pressure and blood pressure.

Adrenal gland Less production of insulin causes Di- Cortisone glucocorticoid: It stimulates the breakdown of glycogen into glucose raising the blood glucose, level. It also produces an anti-inflammatory Ovaries: It secretes two hormones, namely adrenaline epinephrine and Estrogen is responsible for growth noradrenaline norepinephrine. It secretes thymosine which stimu- by fighting with it or running away from it.

They are both cytogenic producing Pineal gland: It produces melatonin ,causing The endocrine part secretes male sex concentration of pigments in some spe- hormone called testosterones androgen.

Testosterone stimulates the growth of reproductive organs and the production of 3. A matured cell divides into two daughter Testosterone determines the cells. Chapter 3 dergo a cell division called Mitosis ,involving changes in the structure of chromosomes, mosomes, this stage is studied under five but without any change in the chromo- sub-divisions as Leptotene, Zygotene, Pachytene, Diplotene and Diakinesis.

The germinal epithelial cells of animals undergo Meiosis cell division, involving changes in the structure and number of chromosomes. Meiosis is a kind of cell division, which occurs in the germinal epithelial cells of the gonads to form the gametes.

Meiosis-II is similar to Mitosis.

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The nuclear membrane Leptotene: The chromosomes undergo, The chromosomes condense and ,marked differences in their shape and appear like threads.

Each chromosome structure. Bivalents now appear on the equator of the spindle with their chromatids, pointing Zygotene: The pairing starts from the chromosomes, towards the oppo- the tip or from the middle and get attached site poles. The entire chromosome, with laterally throughout the length.

This pair- the two chromatids move to the oppo- ing is called Synapsis, the paired chro- site poles. Now two Pachytene: Each bivalent ap- Telophase-I pears to have four strands called as, tetrads or quadrivalents. The point of At the poles, around the group of chro- contact between the homologous pair of mosomes, a nuclear membrane develops. At Thus two daughter nuclei each with half the point of chiasmata, exchange of chro- the number of chromosomes, are formed mosomal segment takes place, between at the poles.

The spindle fibres disappear. At the end of Meiosis-I at right angle to This exchange of segments of chromatids the position of the nuclei, the cytoplasmic between homologous chromosomes, is constriction takes place leading to the di- called crossing over. The cytoplasmic division Diplotene: II and Telophase-II.

Prophase-II The nuclear membrane and the nucle- The bivalent chromosomes gets short- olus disappear. The spindle apparatus is ened. The centrioles form asters and formed in the cytoplasm.

The nucleolus and nu- Metaphase-I: Chapter 3 Chromosomes, each consisting of two parental characters to the progeny. The centromeres are attached with The inheritable characters may be the spindle fibres. Both the mother and fa- the two chromatids separate and now ther contribute equal amount of genetic they are called as daughter chromosomes material to the child.

This means, that or new chromosomes. The daughter chro- each trait can be influenced, by both pa- mosomes move towards the opposite ternal and maternal genetic material i. Telophase-II The haploid set at the two poles coil Summary: Thus are two great co-ordinating system of two daughter nuclei are formed. The cytoplasmic division takes place at They are structural and functional units right angles to the position of the nuclei ,re- of the nervous system. Crossing over results in variation of the mechanism to maintain the genetic traits in the offspring.

Variations form the raw material for endocrine system. The resemblance of son or daughter with his or her father or mother, is an interest- ing feature in nature. Inheritance of char- Evaluation: Brain,Spinal Chord, 8. Adult nervous tissue. Multipolar neuron, mg, mg, Medullated neuron. The protective cover around CNS Bony structure,Meniges, parathyroid gland, lymph gland. Thalamus, Hypothalamus. Very short answer 5.

One of the following is the part of the 1. Copy the diagram and label any brain stem. Pick out. Fore brain and mid brain, Mid brain and hind brain, cyton, axon, dendron, end. Fore brain and hind brain, plate Fore brain and spinal cord.

Sensory nerves, Motor nerves, Mixed nerves, Innervating the brain. Chapter 3 ture and function. Pancreas produces enzymes and harmones. Match A with B and C.

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Complete the table by examining the functions given in Column B and name the corresponding nerve in column A. Find out suitable examples from the bracket given below and write iin column C. This diagram is human brain, and the nerve. Based on relationships fill in the blanks.

Correct the statements if they are A. This controls heart beat wrong. Thiis influences intelligence, a. On the basis of the function performed, beta cells produce glucagon Pick out the right statements. Pitutiary gland secretes hormones and c. Ovary produces eggs and Andro b. Thyroid gland secretes thyroxine and gen. Testes produces sperms and the 8. Based on functions, match the fol harmone androgen. Leptotene,Pachytene, Diplotene, Zygotene.

Pick out the right statement. Reduction division is the process by somatic cell division is meiosis, which gametes are produced,. The meiosis takes place in the body cells in which reduction division take cells, place are mitosis is also called as somatic germinal epithelial cells, cell division, mitosis takes place in the germinal the sensory epithelial cells, epithelial cells.

Pick out the item which has sequential arrangements a. Do you know that all living organisms re- produce both plants and animals?

Re- production is a special biological process, by which new individuals of the same spe- cies are produced. It is one of the bio- logical processes like nutrition, respiration and excretion etc. What will happen if there is no repro- duction? Fig 4. Let us examine how different organisms actually reproduce. The methods by which organisms reproduce depend upon the body shape and structure of organ- isms.

Unicellular organisms, like amoeba and bacteria, split into two equal halves and produce new ones which is called bi- nary fission. Some Bacteria, like Lactobacilli, Sal- monella multiply rapidly, others like Fig 4. Mention a few methods a cool, moist and dark place. South African fossil records show that the first formed organism in the Earth is a Bacterium, i.

In the past two billion years, life got Conversion of milk into curd by Lacto- diversified into multitude of varieties bacilli of organisms that exist today or ex- Harmful activity to humans: Reproduction in unicellular organisms: By Fission.

Evolution may be defined as a grad- ual development of more complex species from pre-existing forms. On Depending upon the body organiza- this basis, the reproduction in sim- tion of multicellular organisms, there are pler forms, like Amoeba and Bacteria, various methods of reproduction. In multicellular organisms with simple body organization, simple reproductive methods have been noticed.

In Spirogyra algae, the plant body breaks up into smaller fragments. In Hydra, a bud develops as an outgrowth Akinetes Conodia due to repeated cell division at one spe- Questions: These buds develop into tiny individuals and, when fully mature, get de- 1.

Differentiate vegetative tached from the parent body to become propagation and sexual new independent individuals.

Similarly, buds produced in the notches 2. Mention some of the spores of along the leaf margin of Bryophyllum fall asexual reproduction. What is sexual reproduction? Sexual reproduction is the process in Shoot which two components male and female are involved to produce offsprings of their own kind.

Bud Notch A bull alone cannot produce new calves. Female sheep alone 4. It needs a In lower group of plants, reproduction takes place by means of spores. The spores are male sheep. During ad- produced by the bodies surrounded comotion. These verse conditions, fungus like peni- by a thin wall. These thin walled by some algae, filled up in cells. They get attracted and a strong bond is formed. The first one is electronic configuration.

The bond formation is discussed through Bohr model. Another method is Lewis structure or electron-dot structure. The metals and non-metals are written with their symbol and dots. Number of dots represents number of outermost electron. The properties of ionic bond are discussed which are based on strong ionic bond formation. Extraction of metal is taught. Metals are extracted from minerals, from their ores. Ores are minerals from which extraction of metal is profitable.

Impurities are removed and after that processing take place according to reactivity of metals.

Higher reactive metals are extracted by electrolysis. Middle reactive metals are first converted into oxides and then reduced to metal.

Metals lower in reactivity series such as gold, silver, platinum etc are found in native state and they need not be processed. After this refining of metal is done which is another level of purification. The extracted metals are needed to be protected from corrosion.

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Lot of money is spent on this. Many methods such as oiling, greasing, electroplating, galavanisation are discussed.

Another method is alloying. It is the process of mixing metals with another metals or non-metals. It makes metal corrosion-free and enhances the strength. Steel is an alloy of metal Iron and Non-metal Carbon, used for construction. Other such alloys are stainless steel, brass, bronze, duralumin etc. Chapter 4 - Carbon and its compounds Carbon is versatile element found in many organic and inorganic compounds.

The reason of this is its tetravalency and catenation which has been discussed. Carbon form bond by sharing its electrons with other elements. Such bond formations of elements formed by sharing of electron is called covalent- bond formation. Covalent Bond formation is explained for other covalent bond formed compounds such as in oxygen gas, nitrogen gas, and covalent formed compounds. Structure of different carbon compounds is explained.

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For example, Organic compounds is formed in straight chains, or branched chains or cyclic chains. Organic compounds are also categorised on the basis of saturated and Unsaturated compound.

Saturated compounds are compounds with only single bond. Unsaturated carbon compounds are compounds with double or triple bond. Organic compounds are basically chain of carbon-Hydrogen. Functional groups can be atom or group of atoms attached to the chain of hydrogen-Carbon. A system of naming that large number of atoms nomenclature is also taught.

Soaps and detergents are studied with their chemical structure and properties. Their difference is also discussed. The detergents are used for cleaning purpose in hard water.

Chapter 5 - Periodic Classification of Elements There are known elements found till date. It is better to study each elements in proper way. For this we need to classify them in an order. If categorized in order, we can easily predict some trends in physical and chemical properties of elements.

Therefore scientists worked to arrange all elements such that alike elements can be placed in certain rows and column. But, this methodology did not worked for every element. Only three triads can be detected. In , John Newlands, tried to arrange elements. Newlands Octave was another method to classify elements. In this every eighth element will show property of first element if placed in order of atomic mass. It was similar to musical notes where first node is similar to eighth.

It also failed as it was not able to work for more than 56 elements. Another method was adopted by Dmitri Mendeleev. Mendeleev arranged the elements based on their atomic masses. He observed that when the elements were arranged in increasing order of their atomic masses, there was a periodic recurrence in their physical and chemical properties.

It was much accurate than previous models. It also had some demerits. Finally, modern periodic came into existence. Atomic number was considered to be criteria for classification.

Elements with same group have same number of outermost electron. Elements in same period have same number of outermost shell. A particular increase to decrease in certain pattern can be predicted. Many such trends are studied in this chapter.

Chapter 6 - Life Process Life processes are various activities performed by living beings for sustaining the life. Such processes are digestive system, respiration system, circulation system etc.

All these things are important to leave. The thing is to consume food through digestive system, perform oxidation of food which involves the process of respiration, and transportation of food and water which is done through circulation. This chapter starts with process of nutrition. The process in which an organism takes in food, utilizes it to get energy, for growth, repair and maintenance, etc.

Other modes of nutrition are autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition which are discussed in chapter. Autotrophic nutrition is done by plants by photosynthesis. Heterotrophic nutrition is done by animals. Different types of Heterotrophic nutrition are discussed. Parasitic Nutrition, saprophytic Nutrition and Holozonic Nutrition are different types of heterotrophic nutrition. Cellular nutrition is done by unicellular organisms which has been discussed in this chapter.

Next topic is nutrition by human beings. It starts with mouths which include salivary glands, tongue and teeth. The food goes to stomach through oesophagus. The food goes to stomach. Liver secretes greenish yellow liquid called bile juice. Pancreas lies behind the lower portion of stomach. It secretes pancreatic juice which contains many digestive enzymes. All such processes are discussed in this digestive system. Next is respiration.

The process of respiration involves: a Gaseous exchange i. Breathing: Intake of oxygen from the atmosphere and release of CO2. And b Cellular respiration: Breakdown of simple food in order to release energy inside the cell. Both are discussed. The human respiration system is discussed with some special attention. Pharynx ,bronchio lungs, diaphragm are different elements of human respiratory system. Mechanisam of process involves inhale and exhale. Both are explained.

Circulation involves the process of transportation of food and other materials from one place to another. The blood is pumped through heart and transported through veins. So, all of them are discussed. Different components of blood are discussed-Red blood cells and White blood cells.

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Four chambers of heart are discussed. In plants, We have discussed earlier how plants take in simple compounds such as CO2 and photosynthesise energy stored in their chlorophyll-containing organs, namely leaves. The other kinds of raw materials needed for building plant bodies will also have to be taken up separately. For plants, the soil is the nearest and richest source of raw materials like nitrogen, phosphorus and other minerals.

The absorption of these substances therefore occurs through the part in contact with the soil, namely roots. It has been discussed in details. The biological process involved in the removal of these harmful metabolic wastes from the body is called excretion.

Different organisms use varied strategies to do this. It is discussed in details for human beings. Chapter 7 - Control and Coordination System Earlier, we had started with a notion we all have, that if we see something moving, it is alive. Some of these movements are in fact the result of growth, as in plants. A seed germinates and grows, and we can see that the seedling moves over the course of a few days, Control and coordination are the functions of the nervous system and hormones in our bodies.

The responses of the nervous system can be classified as reflex action, voluntary action or involuntary action. The nervous system uses electrical impulses to transmit messages. The nervous system gets information from our sense organs and acts through our muscles.

Chemical coordination is seen in both plants and animals. Hormones produced in one part of an organism move to another part to achieve the desired effect. A feedback mechanism regulates the action of the hormones. Chapter 8 - How do organisms reproduce?

Reproduction, unlike other life processes, is not essential to maintain the life of an individual organism. It involves creation of a DNA copy and additional cellular apparatus by the cell involved in the process. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Join Our Whatsapp Group. Tnpsc Group 2 2A Exam Details. Tnpsc G2 Previous Questions. Tnpsc G2 Model Questions.

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